Role of “Options” in Real Estate Investment

A common question asked by many beginning in the business is; "What really are my options for real estate investment?" Although we do not have the space here to outline all the opportunities here, we can address "options." Options are a little used, but highly effective investment technique in transactions where they can meet the needs of both the buyer (or optionee) and the seller (or optionor). , the legal right to purchase a property at a predetermined price and time. This produces constructive equity in the property for the optionee. As you recall, real estate is a "bundle of rights". These rights can be separated and sold one at a time. Therefore, an owner can sell the right to purchase to another person. By agreeing to an option, a property owner gives the other person the exclusive right to buy the property at the price and terms stated in the option.

The basic concept of options opportunities is that a seller (optionor) can rid himself or herself of the headache of operations, operating liabilities and management activities. The optionee can undertake the unwanted obligations and in so doing can make decisions that will produce greater value in the near future, which in turn will allow the optionee to either sell their position for a profit or exercise the option and simultaneously sell the property to another buyer at a profit.

Typically for an option to be profitable, the optionee must either improve the operation of the property or physically improve the property such that it has a higher market value. Options are not used very often, but are a valid technique for transacting business. Perhaps the reason most optionees enter into this type of relationship is that they can do so for less out-of-pocket cost than making an outright purchase.

In any case, where the needs and wants of both parties are fairly represented and satisfied, profiting from real estate is a powerful way to build equities and wealth quickly. Options, like all techniques, can be used in a small proportion of possible transactions and can produce generous profits. The trick, as always, is to know how and when to use them. Good luck in your career.

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Why Is Bitcoin Cloud Mining the Way Forward?

Cloud mining allows you to access data centre processing capacity and obtain cryptocoins without the need to purchase the right hardware, software, spend money on electricity, maintenance, and so on. The essence of cloud mining is that it allows users to buy the processing power of remote data centres.

The whole cryptocoin production process is carried out in the cloud, which makes cloud mining very useful for those who do not understand all the technical aspects of the process and do not want to run their own software or hardware. If electricity is costly where you live – for example in Germany – then, outsource the mining process in a country where electricity is cheaper, such as the US.

Types of Bitcoin cloud mining:

There are currently three ways to conduct mining in the cloud:

1. Leased mining. Lease of a mining machine hosted by the supplier.

2. Virtually Hosted Mining. Creating a virtual private server and installing your mining software.

3. Renting hash power. Renting a certain amount of hash power, without having a dedicated physical or virtual equipment. (This is by far the most popular method of cloud mining).

What are the advantages of Bitcoin cloud mining?

– Not dealing with the excess heat generated by the machines.

– Avoiding the constant buzz of the fans.

– Not having to pay electricity.

– Not selling your mining equipment when it is no longer profitable.

– No ventilation issues with the equipment, which is usually heated a lot.

– Avoiding possible delays in the delivery of hardware.

What are the disadvantages of Bitcoin cloud mining?

– The possibility of fraud,

– Operations with bitcoins can not be verified

– Unless you like to build your own Bitcoin hash systems, it might be boring.

– Lower profits – Bitcoin cloud mining services carry expenses.

– Bitcoin mining contracts may allow cessation of operations or payments if the Bitcoin price is too low.

– Not being able to change mining software.

Risk of mining in the cloud:

The risk of fraud and mismanagement is prevalent in the world of cloud mining. Investors should only invest if they are comfortable with these risks – as they say, “never invest more than what you are willing to lose.” Research social networks, talk to old clients and ask all the questions you consider appropriate before investing.

Is cloud mining profitable?

The answer to this question depends on some factors that affect the profitability of investments. Cost is the most obvious factor. The service charge covers the cost of electricity, accommodation and hardware. On the other hand, the reputation and reliability of the company is a determining factor due to the prevalence of scams and bankruptcies.

Finally, profitability depends on factors that no company can predict or control: just remember the high volatility of Bitcoin in the last three years. When you buy a mining contract, it is better to assume a constant price for Bitcoin, since your other alternative is to buy bitcoins and wait for the price to rise. Another important factor is the capacity of the entire network, which depends on the number of operations per second. Over the past few years, power has increased exponentially. Its growth will continue to rely on the value of Bitcoin and innovation in the development of integrated circuits for particular applications.

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Building a Kingdom – Case Study of Kingdom Financial Holdings Limited

This article presents a case study of sustained entrepreneurial growth of Kingdom Financial Holdings. It is one of the entrepreneurial banks which survived the financial crisis that started in Zimbabwe in 2003. The bank was established in 1994 by four entrepreneurial young bankers. It has grown substantially over the years. The case examines the origins, growth and expansion of the bank. It concludes by summarizing lessons or principles that can be derived from this case that maybe applicable to entrepreneurs.

Profile of an Entrepreneur: Nigel Chanakira

Nigel Chanakira was raised in the Highfield suburb of Harare in an entrepreneurial family. His father and uncle operated a public transport company Modern Express and later diversified into retail shops. Nigel’s father later exited the family business. He bought out one of the shops and expanded it. During school holidays young Nigel, as the first born, would work in the shops. His parents, particularly his mother, insisted that he acquire an education first.

On completion of high school, Nigel failed to enter dental or medical school, which were his first passions. In fact his grades could only qualify him for the Bachelor of Arts degree programme at the University of Zimbabwe. However, he “sweet-talked his way into a transfer” to the Bachelor in Economics degree programme. Academically he worked hard, exploiting his strong competitive character that was developed during his sporting days. Nigel rigorously applied himself to his academic pursuits and passed his studies with excellent grades, which opened the door to employment as an economist with the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ).

During his stint with the Reserve Bank, his economic mindset indicated to him that wealth creation was happening in the banking sector therefore he determined to understand banking and financial markets. While employed at RBZ, he read for a Master’s degree in Financial Economics and Financial Markets as preparation for his debut into banking. At the Reserve Bank under Dr Moyana, he was part of the research team that put together the policy framework for the liberalization of the financial services within the Economic Structural Adjustment Programme. Being at the right place at the right time, he became aware of the opportunities which were opening up. Nigel exploited his position to identify the most profitable banking institution to work for as preparation for his future. He headed to Bard Discount House and worked for five years under Charles Gurney.

A short while later the two black executives at Bard, Nick Vingirayi and Gibson Muringai, left to form Intermarket Discount House. Their departure inspired the young Nigel. If these two could establish a banking institution of their own so could he, given time. The departure also created an opportunity for him to rise to fill the vacancy. This gave the aspiring banker critical managerial experience. Subsequently he became a director for Bard Investment Services where he gained critical experience in portfolio management, client relationships and dealing within the dealing department. While there he met Franky Kufa, a young dealer who was making waves, who would later become a key co-entrepreneur with him.

Despite his professional business engagement his father enrolled Nigel in the Barclays Bank “Start Your Own Business” Programme. However what really made an impact on the young entrepreneur was the Empretec Entrepreneur Training programme (May 1994), to which he was introduced by Mrs Tsitsi Masiyiwa. The course demonstrated that he had the requisite entrepreneurial competences.

Nigel talked Charles Gurney into an attempted management buy-out of Bard from Anglo -American. This failed and the increasingly frustrated aspiring entrepreneur considered employment opportunities with Nick Vingirai’s Intermarket and Never Mhlanga’s National Discount House which was on the verge of being formed – hoping to join as a shareholder since he was acquainted with the promoters. He was denied this opportunity.

Being frustrated at Bard and having been denied entry into the club by pioneers, he resigned in October 1994 with the encouragement of Mrs Masiyiwa to pursue his entrepreneurial dream.

The Dream

Inspired by the messages of his pastor, Rev. Tom Deuschle, and frustrated at his inability to participate in the church’s massive building project, Nigel sought a way of generating huge financial resources. During a time of prayer he claims that he had a divine encounter where he obtained a mandate from God to start Kingdom Bank. He visited his pastor and told him of this encounter and the subsequent desire to start a bank. The godly pastor was amazed at the 26 year old with “big spectacles and wearing tennis shoes” who wanted to start a bank. The pastor prayed before counselling the young man. Having been convinced of the genuineness of Nigel’s dream, the pastor did something unusual. He asked him to give a testimony to the congregation of how God was leading him to start a bank. Though timid, the young man complied. That experience was a powerful vote of confidence from the godly pastor. It demonstrates the power of mentors to build a protégé.

Nigel teamed up with young Franky Kufa. Nigel Chanakira left Bard at the position of Chief Economist. They would build their own entrepreneurial venture. Their idea was to identify players who had specific competences and would each be able to generate financial resources from his activity. Their vision was to create a one – stop financial institution offering a discount house, an asset management company and a merchant bank. Nigel used his Empretec model to develop a business plan for their venture. They headhunted Solomon Mugavazi, a stockbroker from Edwards and Company and B. R. Purohit, a corporate banker from Stanbic. Kufa would provide money market expertise while Nigel provided income from government bond dealings as well as overall supervision of the team.

Each of the budding partners brought in an equal portion of the Z$120,000 as start-up capital. Nigel talked to his wife and they sold their recently acquired Eastlea home and vehicles to raise the equivalent of US$17,000 as their initial capital. Nigel, his wife and three kids headed back to Highfield to live in with his parents. The partners established Garmony Investments which started trading as an unregistered financial institution. The entrepreneurs agreed not to draw a salary in their first year of operations as a bootstrapping strategy.

Mugavazi introduced and recommended Lysias Sibanda, a chartered accountant, to join the team. Nigel was initially reluctant as each person had to bring in an earning capacity and it was not clear how an accountant would generate revenue at start up in a financial institution. Nigel initially retained a 26% share which assured him a blocking vote as well as giving him the position of controlling shareholder.

Nigel credits the Success Motivation Institute (SMI) course “The Dynamics of Successful Management” as the lethal weapon that enabled him to acquire managerial competences. Initially he insisted that all his key executives undertake this training programme.

Birth of the Kingdom

Kingdom Securities P/L commenced operations in November 1994 as a wholly owned subsidiary of Garmony Investments (Pvt) Ltd. It traded as a broker on both money and stock markets.

On 24th February 1995 Kingdom Securities Holding was born with the following subsidiaries: Kingdom Securities Ltd, Kingdom Stockbrokers (Pvt) Ltd and Kingdom Asset Managers (Pvt) Ltd. The flagship Kingdom Securities Ltd was registered as a Discount House under Banking Act Chapter 188 on 25th July 1995. Kingdom Stockbrokers was registered with the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange under ZSE Chapter 195 on 1st August 1995. The pre-licensing trading had generated good revenue but they still had a 20% deficit of the required capital. Most institutional investors turned them down as they were a greenfield company promoted by people perceived to be “too young”. At this stage National Merchant Bank, Intermarket and others were on the market raising equity and these were run by seasoned and mature promoters. However Rachel Kupara, then MD for Zimnat, believed in the young entrepreneurs and took up the first equity portion for Zimnat at 5%.

Norman Sachikonye, then Financial Director and Investments Manager at First Mutual followed suit, taking up an equity share of 15%. These two institutional investors were inducted as shareholders of Kingdom Securities Holdings on 1st August 1995. Garmony Investments ceased operations and reversed itself into Kingdom Securities on 31st July 1995, thereby becoming an 80% shareholder.

The first year of operations was marked by intense competition as well as discrimination against new financial institutions by public organisations. All the other operating units performed well except for the corporate finance department with Kingdom Securities, led by Purohit. This monetary loss, differing spiritual and ethical values led to the forced departure of Purohit as an executive director and shareholder on 31st December 1995. From then the Kingdom started to grow exponentially.

Structural Growth

Nigel and his team pursued an aggressive growth strategy with the intention of increasing market share, profitability, and geographic spread while developing a strong brand. The growth strategy was built around a business philosophy of simplifying financial services and making them easily accessible to the general public. An IT strategy that created a low cost delivery channel exploiting ATMs and POS while providing a platform that was ready for Internet and web-based applications, was espoused.

On 1st April 1997, Kingdom Financial Services was licensed as an accepting house focusing on trading and distributing foreign currency, treasury activities, corporate finance, investment banking and advisory services. It was formed under the leadership of Victor Chando with the intention of becoming the merchant banking arm of the Group. In 1998, Kingdom Merchant Bank (KMB) was licensed and it took over the assets and liabilities of Kingdom Securities Limited. Its main focus was treasury related products, off-balance sheet finance, foreign currency and trade finance. Kingdom Research Institute was established as a support service to the other units.

The entrepreneurial bankers, cognisant of their limitations, sought to achieve critical mass quickly by actively seeking capital injection from equity investors. The aim was to broaden ownership while lending strategic support in areas of mutual interest. An attempt at equity uptake from Global Emerging Markets from London failed. However in 1997 the efforts of the bankers were rewarded when the following organisations took up some equity, reducing the shareholding of executive directors as shown below: ïEUR Ipcorn 0.7%, ïEUR Zambezi Fund Mauritius P/L 1.1%, ïEUR Zambezi Fund P/L 0.7%. ïEUR Kingdom Employee Share Trust 5%, ïEUR Southern Africa Enterprise Development Fund – 8% redeemable preference shares amounting to US$1,5m as the first investee company in Southern Africa from the US Fund initiated by US President Bill Clinton, ïEUR Weiland Investments, a company belonging to Mr Richard Muirimi, a long standing friend of Nigel and associate in the fund management business took up 1.7%, Garmony Investments 71.7% -executive directors. ïEUR After a rights issue Zimnat fell to 4.8% while FML went down to 14.3%.

In 1998, Kingdom launched four Unit Trusts which proved very popular with the market. Initially these products were focused at individual clients of the discount house as well as private portfolios of Kingdom Stockbroking. Aggressive marketing and awareness campaigns established the Kingdom Unit Trust as the most popular retail brand of the group. The Kingdom brand was thus born.

Acquisition of Discount Company of Zimbabwe (DCZ)

After a spurt of organic growth, the Kingdom entrepreneurs decided to hasten the growth rate synergistically. They set out to acquire the oldest discount house in the country and the world, The Discount Company of Zimbabwe, which was a listed entity. With this acquisition Kingdom would acquire critical competences as well as achieve the much coveted ZSE listing inexpensively through a reverse listing. Initial efforts at a negotiated merger with DCZ were rebuffed by its executives who could not countenance a forty year old institution being swallowed up by a four year old business. The entrepreneurs were not deterred. Nigel approached his friend Greg Brackenridge at Stanbic to finance and effect the acquisition of the sixty percent shares which were in the hands of about ten shareholders, on behalf of Kingdom Financial Holdings but to be placed in the ownership of Stanbic Nominees. This strategy masked the identity of the acquirer. Claud Chonzi, the National Social Security Authority (NSSA) GM and a friend to Lysias Sibanda (a Kingdom executive director), agreed to act as a front in the negotiations with the DCZ shareholders. NSSA is a well known institutional investor and hence these shareholders may have believed that they were dealing with an institutional investor. Once Kingdom controlled 60% of DCZ, it took over the company and reverse listed itself onto the Stock Exchange as Kingdom Financial Holdings Limited (KFHL). Because of the negative real interest rates, Kingdom successfully used debt finance to structure the acquisition. This acquisition and the subsequent listing gave the once despised young entrepreneurs confidence and credibility on the market.

Other Strategic Acquisitions

Within the same year Kingdom Merchant Bank acquired a strategic stake in CFX Bureau de Change owned by Sean Maloney as well as another stake in a greenfield microlending franchise, Pfihwa P/L. CFX was changed into KFX and used in most foreign currency trading activities. KFHL set as a strategic intention the acquisition of an additional 24.9% stake in CFX Holdings to safeguard the initial investment and ensure management control. This did not work out. Instead, Sean Maloney opted out and took over the failed Universal Merchant Bank licence to form CFX Merchant Bank. Although Kingdom executives contend that the alliance failed due to the abolition of bureau de change by government, it appears that Sean Maloney refused to give up control of the extra shareholding sought by Kingdom. It therefore would be reasonable that once Kingdom could not control KFX, a fall out ensued. The liquidation of this investment in 2002 resulted in a loss of Z$403 million on that investment. However this was manageable in light of the strong group profitability.

Pfihwa P/L financed the informal sector as a form of corporate social responsibility. However when the hyperinflationary environment and stringent regulatory environment encroached on the viability of the project, it was wound up in early 2004. Kingdom pursued its financing of the informal sector through MicroKing, which was established with international assistance. By 2002 MicroKing had eight branches located in the midst of, or near, micro-enterprise clusters.

In 2000, due to increased activity on the foreign currency front within the banking sector, Kingdom opened a private banking facility through the discount house to exploit revenue streams from this market. Following market trends, it engaged the insurance company AIG to enter the bancassurance market in 2003.

Meikles Strategic Alliance

In 1999 the entrepreneurial Chanakira on advice from his executives and the legendary corporate finance team from Barclays bank led by the affable Hugh Van Hoffen entered into a strategic alliance with Meikles Africa whereby it injected some Z$322 million into Kingdom for an equity shareholding of 25%. Interestingly, the deal nearly collapsed on pricing as Meikles only wanted to pay $250 million whilst KFHL valued themselves at Z$322 million which in real terms was the largest private sector deal done between an indigenous bank and a listed corporate. Nigel testifies that it was a walk through the incomplete Celebration Church site on the Saturday preceding the signing of the Meikles deal that led him to sign the deal which he saw as a means for him to sow a whopping seed into the church to boost the Building Fund. God was faithful! Kingdom’s share price shot up dramatically from $2,15 at the time he made the commitment to the Pastor all the way to $112,00 by the following October!

In return Kingdom acquired a powerful cash-rich shareholder that allowed it entrance into retail banking through an innovative in-store banking strategy. Meikles Africa opened its retail branches, namely TM Supermarkets, Clicks, Barbours, Medix Pharmacies and Greatermans, as distribution channels for Kingdom commercial bank or as account holders providing deposits and requiring banking services. This was a cheaper way of entering retail banking. It proved useful during the 2003 cash crisis because Meikles with its massive cash resources within its business units assisted Kingdom Bank, thus cushioning it from a liquidity crisis. The alliance also raised the reputation and credibility of Kingdom Bank and created an opportunity for Kingdom to finance Meikles Africa’s customers through the jointly owned Meikles Financial Services. Kingdom provided the funding for all lease and hire purchases from Meikles’ subsidiaries, thus driving sales for Meikles while providing easy lending opportunities for Kingdom. Meikles managed the relationship with the client.

Meikles Africa as a strategic shareholder assured Kingdom of success when recapitalisation was required and has enhanced Kingdom’s brand image. This strategic relationship has created powerful synergies for mutual benefit.

Commercial Banking

Exploiting the opportunities arising from the strategic relationship with Meikles Africa, Kingdom made its debut into retail banking in January 2001 with in-store branches at High Glen and Chitungwiza TM supermarkets. The target was principally the mass market. This rode on the strong brand Kingdom had created through the Unit Trusts. In-store banking offered low cost delivery channels with minimal investment in brick and mortar. By the end of 2001, thirteen branches were operational across the country. This followed a deliberate strategy for aggressive roll-out of the branches with two flagship branches ïEUR­ïEUR one in Bulawayo and the other in Harare. There was a huge emphasis on an IT driven strategy with significant cross-selling between the commercial bank and other SBUs.

However, it was further discovered that there was a market for the upmarket clients and hence Crown banking outlets were established to diversify the target market. In 2004, after closing three in-store branches in a rationalization exercise, there were 16 in-store branches and 9 Crown banking outlets.

The entrance into commercial banking was probably held at the wrong time, considering the imminent changes in the banking industry. Commercial banking does provide cheap deposits, however at the price of huge staff costs and human resource management complications. Nigel concedes that, with hindsight, this could have been delayed or done at a slower pace. However, the need for increased market share in a fiercely competitive industry necessitated this. Another reason for persisting with the commercial banking project was that of prior agreements with Meikles Africa. It is possible that Meikles Africa had been sold on the equity take-up deal on the back of promises to engage in in-store banking, which would increase revenue for its subsidiaries.

Innovative Products and Services

KFHL continued its aggressive pursuit of product innovation. After the failure of the KFX project, CurrencyKing was established to continue the work. However this was abolished in November 2002 by government ministerial intervention when bureau de change were prohibited in an effort to stamp out parallel market foreign currency trading.

Sadly this governmental decision was misguided for not only did it fail to banish foreign currency parallel trading but it drove underground, made it more lucrative and subsequently the government lost all control of the management of the exchange rate.

In October 2002, KFHL established Kingdom Leasing after being granted a finance house licence. Its mandate was to exploit opportunities to trade in financial leases, lease hire and short term financial products.

Regional Expansion

Around 2000 it became evident that the domestic market was highly competitive, with limited prospects of future growth. A decision was made to diversify revenue streams and reduce country risk through penetration into the regional markets. This strategy would exploit the proven competences in securities trading, asset management and corporate advisory services from a small capital base. Therefore the entrance had low risk in terms of capital injection. Considering the foreign exchange control limitations and shortage of foreign currency in Zimbabwe, this was a prudent strategy but not without its downside, as will be seen in the Botswana venture.

In 2001, KFHL acquired a 25.1% stake in a greenfield banking enterprise in Malawi, First Discount House Ltd. To safeguard its investment and ensure managerial control, an executive director and dealer were seconded to the Malawi venture while Nigel Chanakira chaired the Board. This investment has continued to grow and yield positive returns. As of July 2006 Kingdom had finally managed to up its stake from 25,1% to 40% in this investment and may ultimately control it to the point of seeking a conversion of the license to a commercial bank.

KFHL also took up a 25% equity stake in Investrust Merchant Bank Zambia. Franky Kufa was seconded to it as an executive director while Nigel took a seat on the Board.

KFHL had been promised an option to gain a controlling stake. However when the bank stabilized, the Zambian shareholders entered into some questionable transactions and were not prepared to allow KFHL to up it’s stake and so KFHL decided to pull out as relationships turned frosty. The Zambian Central Bank intervened with a promise to grant KFHL its own banking license. This did not materialize as the Zambian Central Bank exploited the banking crisis in Zimbabwe to deny KHFL a licence. A reasonable premium of Z$2.5 billion was obtained at disinvestment.

In Botswana, a subsidiary called Kingdom Bank Africa Ltd (KBAL) was established as an offshore bank in the International Finance Centre. KBAL was intended to spearhead and manage regional initiatives for Kingdom. It was headed by Mrs Irene Chamney, seconded by Lysias Sibanda with the concurrence of Nigel after managerial challenges in Zimbabwe. Two other senior executives were seconded there. She successfully set up the KBAL’s banking infrastructure and had good relations with the Botswana authorities.

However, the business model chosen of an offshore bank ahead of a domestic Botswana merchant bank license turned out to be the Achilles heel of the bank more so when the Zimbabwe banking crisis set in between 2003 and 2005. There were fundamental differences in how Mrs Chamney and Chanakira saw the bank surviving and going forward.

Ultimately, it was deemed prudent for Mrs. Chamney to leave the bank in 2005. In 2001 KFHL acquired the mandate as the sole distributor of the American Express card in the whole of Africa except for RSA. This was handled through KBAL. Kingdom Private Bank was transferred from the discount house to become a subsidiary of KBAL due to the prevailing regulatory environment in Zimbabwe.

In 2004 KBAL was temporarily placed under curatorship due to undercapitalisation. At this stage the parent company had regulatory constraints that prevented foreign currency capital injection.

A solution was found in the sourcing of local partners and the transfer of US$1 million previously realised from the proceeds of the Investrust liquidation to Botswana. Nigel Chanakira took a more active management role in KBAL because of its huge strategic significance to the future of KFHL. Currently efforts are underway to acquire a local commercial bank licence in Botswana as well. Once this is acquired there are two possible scenarios, namely maintaining both licences or giving up the offshore licence.

The interviewees were divided in their opinion on this. However in my view, judging from the stakeholder power involved, KFHL is likely to give up the off shore banking licence and use the local Kingdom Bank Botswana (Pula Bank) licence for regional and domestic expansion.

Human Resources

The staff complement grew from the initial 23 in 1995 to more than 947 by 2003. The growth was consistent with the growing institution. It exploded, especially during the launch and expansion of the commercial bank. Kingdom from inception had a strong human resourcing strategy which entailed significant training both internally and externally. Before the foreign currency crisis, employees were sent for training in such countries as RSA, Sweden, India and the USA. In the person of Faith Ntabeni Bhebhe, Kingdom had an energetic HR driver who created powerful HR systems for the emerging behemoth.

As a sign of its commitment to building the human resource capability, in 1998 Kingdom Financial Services entered a management agreement with Holland based AMSCO for the provision of seasoned bankers. Through this strategic alliance Kingdom strengthened its skills base and increased opportunities for skills transfer to locals. This helped the entrepreneurial bankers create a solid managerial system for the bank while the seasoned bankers from Holland compensated for the youthfulness of the emerging bankers. What a foresight!

In-house self-paced interactive learning, team building exercises and mentoring were all part of the learning menu targeted at developing the human resource capacity of the group. Work and job profiling was introduced to best match employees to suitable posts. Career path and succession planning were embraced. Kingdom was the first entrepreneurial bank to have smooth unforced CEO transitions. The founding CEO passed on the baton to Lysias Sibanda in 1999 as he stepped into the role of Group CEO and board deputy chair. His role was now to pursue and spearhead global and regional niche financial markets. A few years later there was another change of the guard as

Franky Kufa stepped in as Group CEO to replace Sibanda, who resigned on medical grounds. One could argue that these smooth transitions were due to the fact that the baton was passing to founding directors.

With the explosive growth in staff complement due to the commercial bank project, culture issues emerged. Consequently, KFHL engaged in an enculturation programme resulting in a culture revolution dubbed “Team Kingdom”. This culture had to be reinforced due to dilutions through significant mergers and acquisitions, significant staff turnover because of increased competition, emigration to greener pastures and the age profile of the staff increased the risk of high mobility and fraudulent activities in collusion with members of the public. Culture changes are difficult to effect and their effectiveness even harder to assess.

In 2004, with a high staff turnover of around 14%, a compensation strategy that ring fenced critical skills like IT and treasury was implemented. Due to the low margins and the financial stress experienced in 2004, KFHL lost more than 341 staff members due to retrenchment, natural attrition and emigration. This was acceptable as profitability fell while staff costs soared. At this stage, staff costs accounted for 58% of all expenses.

Despite the impressive growth, the financial performance when inflation adjusted was mediocre. Actually a loss position was reported in 2004. This growth was severely compromised by the hyperinflationary conditions and the restrictive regulatory environment.

Conclusion

This article shows the determination of entrepreneurs to push through to the realisation of their dreams despite significant odds. In a subsequent article we will tackle the challenges faced by Nigel Chanakira in solidifying his investments.

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Silver Investment Clubs

Why should you want to buy silver at $15 an ounce when you can wait for silver to go down to $12 an ounce. The simple and realistic answer is the supply of silver decreases with time. Trying to wait for low prices will negatively affect your ability to buy the quantities you want. Buying on a cost average method allows a consistent accumulation of silver.The short term price you pay today will be considered a bargain in the future.

If you could flash forward one year and look at the price you paid for silver today, you will realize that the price you paid last year was a bargain. Making small changes in your spending profile can benefit you greatly. Do you purchase cigarettes on a regular basis? Consider this, once purchased your cigarette purchase is destroyed upon use. You will get a one time value from each cigarette. But to repeat the experience you will have to give away more money. With the regular purchase of silver, whether weekly or monthly, you have a product that lasts year after year after year.

If you take the same amount of money that you spend on pampering yourself and buy silver you increase your real wealth. Forget about that daily cup of gourmet coffer and buy yourself an ounce or two of silver.

Become part of or start a silver investing club. Most silver brokers buy from wholesale sources. Leverage the power of group buying to negotiate purchase rates that are fair and favorable to your silver investment club. Silver brokers work on commission. Do not overlook the power of negotiating. Make sure you have a plan a and an plan b. If your club plans to purchase more than $1000 in a single transaction ask for a discount. If your club purchases $2500 or more in a single transaction ask for a larger discount. Another advantage of a group membership is that you can be more productive with 100 people giving one percent of effort than 1 person giving 100 percent of their effort. Their is strength in numbers.

If there are no clubs in your immediate area then look at the penny saver magazines of surrounding communities. If you have to start your own club run an ad in the local newspaper or penny saver magazine. An example ad would be: Investment club forming. initial investment under $50. Automatic monthly purchases to acquire precious metals. Call telephone xxx-xxxx. Place your ads under the business, financial, and personals section of the penny saver publication. Of course, this technique will work just as well with the local newspaper.

You can also post advertisements in the form of flyers. These flyers can be put on public bulletin boards. Convenience stores, food stores and churches are excellent places to advertise. Just make sure you get permission first. And sometimes you do not need permission.

Look at your bank account and tell me if you are getting a fair return on the money you loan to the bank. If not you need an equalizer to develop you wealth. Using your paper money to acquire real money protects your economic standing. Your best friend when it comes to your finances is you. Be proactive in managing your assets.The systematic acquisition of silver coins can be painless. You have alternatives to starting a silver club. For a more direct and systematic way to own silver consider joining already established silver clubs.

Watch the current trend in owning precious metals. Do what the smart money movers are doing.The possibility of silver prices skyrocketing to three digits may not be far away. Consider this, the fiat currency you have in your savings account is being inflated away on a continuous basis. Acquire real wealth now. Buy silver because the price will surely increase.

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Online Forex Trading Tools – Understand the Various Options Available

Online forex trading tools are of great help to new forex traders. Even experienced traders often rely on some of these tools to confirm their trading decisions. Due to global connectivity and telecom revolution, forex trading is no longer restricted to large corporations alone. Retail investors too are entering the forex market in a big way with the intention of making money.

Forex market is the largest financial market in the world both in terms of size and volume of transactions handled. It can be risky to start trading forex on your own without any formal forex education or without the help of a reliable forex trading tool.

The major disadvantage of any online product is the possibility of it being a scam. It is very easy to make up false product performance statistics and post them on the Internet. Therefore beware of online scams. Ensure that you carry out proper research to establish the authenticity of information and claims made by the product developers online.

The various options available for you to choose your online forex trading tools are

1. Trading platforms of existing professional traders

A number of successful professional forex traders market their own trading systems online. Check out the reputation of the trader to begin with. If possible verify his / her background over phone with other traders known to you.  Being backed by an existing successful trader, such systems normally deliver whatever promised.

2. Expert advisor

Expert advisor is another online forex trading tool which is very reliable in analyzing charts and making automatic trading decisions. Automated forex trading robots are particularly useful to new forex traders. Robots are programmed to make trading decisions on its own without any human intervention.

3. Forex forums

By participating in popular forex forums, you can get a lot of information on online forex trading. With the help of these forums you can seek advice from experienced traders who are already making use of reliable online tools for trading forex. Information regarding new products launched is also exchanged amongst users of forex forums.

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Different Methods of Mining Coal

Different methods of coal mining are adapted to dig out the natural coal from the earth. Among them, Surface mining method is applied for producing coal of about nearly 40% in the world. The coal deposits are found on the surface of the earth and make the mining easier for the coal-miners. The various types of coal mining are contour, mountaintop removal and strip mining.

Strip mining is adopted in areas, which has leveled landscape. The surface coal is exposed when the earth covering them is removed in strips. When the whole earth concealing is removed from the surface the coal that lay beneath is exposed. They appear in blocks and are usually extracted either by drilling or blasting. Once the strip is free of coal or goes empty, the strip mining process is continued with the next strip that lay adjacent to the former.

The contour mining is used to remove coal from the layer following the contours found along the ridges of a hill or landscape. The commonly used places for this type of mining are areas with rolling to steep terrain. This method may create landslides and erosion troubles. Using the freshly cut overburden to refill the mined areas rectifies these problems. Strip mining has its own limitations and when the process of strip mining reaches a specific stripping ratio, it may not yield you profit when continued.

Mountaintop removal coal mining can be understood by its name. Removing the mountaintops exposes the coal. This method also involves disposing of mining overburden that is associated with mountaintops removal in nearby valleys. This method is a combination of area and contour strip mining methods. This process creates adverse changes in the topography like creating head of hollow hills and filling valleys with mining wastes.

Latest open cast methods can reveal higher proportion of coal deposit than the underground mining methods.

Deep mining or underground mining is applied to dug out coal that lay underneath the surface of the earth. The primary underground mining ways are Continuous, Longwall, Shortwall, Retreat and Blast Mining.

Longwall mining method is adopted for about 50% of underground mining. This method involves a complex machine with a revolving drum that sways mechanically back and forth across the coal deposit. This method yields high production and ensures safety. This method has sensors that can detect the quantity of remaining coal in the seam and robotic controls contribute to the efficiency of the process.

Continuous mining method is applied for about 45% in underground coal mining. The machine used in this method has a huge revolving steel drum that is facilitated with tungsten carbide teeth to extract the coal from the seam.

Blast mining occupies less than 5% of the whole underground mining in USA. Explosives are used to break the coal seam in this method. The extracted coal is collected and transported to the central area using conveyors or shuttle cars.

Shortwall mining covers 1% and the method is somewhat similar to longwall mining. Retreat mining method employs pillar or coal ribs to support the roof of the mine. This is the most dangerous method as it involves risk of falling roofs that might trap or crush the workers in the mine.

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A Tour of Forex Trading Tools

In foreign exchange (forex) trading, brokerage companies offer their clients different types of tools to help them succeed. Also referred to as FX, foreign exchange markets are unique and complex. The brokerage company provides our clients with essential forex tools such as margin and pip calculators as well as a currency converter to ensure people trading in forex have a safe and secure trading experience.

Each of the brokerage company's FX tools has been specifically designed to enable customers to have the most efficient resources available, providing the most recent precise information. As a result, data streams and live prices are delivered to the broker's FX tools in real time. As a result, people trading are able to make informed trading transactions.

Calculating Margin
This FX calculator helps the person trading currency to decide on the selling price for currency pairs to attain the preferred profit margin. Depending on the specific tool provided, the trader would simply enter the trade size and select the currency pair in the preferred account currency.

Next, the person planning a trade would then enter the leakage necessary and click on the calculate button which, by design, generates the required selling price and gross margin.

Calculating Currency
The brokerage company currency converter is a simple FX tool to convert a set amount of one currency to another. It features twenty three different contexts.

The trader chooses the desired amount and the appropriate currency from the list provided. The prices are updated in real time by the brokerage company.

Next, the person trading should choose the currency that they want to convert. The next step is to use the calculate feature. The FX currency calculator then gives the value based upon the live market pricing.

Calculating Pip
A pip is the least change that can be made in a given exchange. The FX pip calculator provides the value per pip in the trader's account currency for all major currency pairs. All values ​​are based on real-time brokerage company currency rates.

A pip calculator can be an important tool in the preparation and creation of an assessment of forex trades.

The individual punches in the preferred trading amount in units, then chooses the desired currency pair. The trader then chooses the currency they wish to have the figure converted into.

Activating the calculation button obtains the pip value for the currency chosen using market prices from live forex trading.

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Discover The Best Way To Shop For A New Car Loan

Shopping for a new car when your old one is about to give up isn’t most people’s idea of a good time. It’s not deciding what kind of car you want that’s the problem. Most people are able to think seriously and be realistic about what kind of car they can afford to own. They’ll happily settle for a sedan, even if they dream of a sports car.

However, your credit might get in the way. If you’ve got less than great credit, car dealers can make you feel like a second class citizen. They don’t want to take the risk of selling you the car you need, so they steer you towards other, less desirable models. They don’t want to waste their time on you if you are not going to qualify for financing.

Very few people have perfect credit these days. There’s always an occasion where you miss a few payments on a credit card or other bill, or get laid off from your job and have to put off the least vital bills. However, even if things are now different and you can deal with your financial responsibilities, you’ll still have that black mark on your credit.

Credit bureaus can keep the information about those missed payments on your record for a long time. When you start investigating your options for financing your new car, they’re sure to turn up. This means that you’re on the defensive, and have to relive the period when you weren’t able to live up to your responsibilities. It’s necessary for you to explain to the dealership what happened, why you weren’t able to make those payments, and to justify your ability to make them now. Here’s some information to help you do this more easily.

The first thing you should do is realistically figure out how much you can afford for your new car payment. Don’t make the mistake of being too optimistic about your ability to save money or reduce expenses. Buying a new car shouldn’t affect your quality of life. If it’s necessary to stretch your budget that thin, you should put off getting a new car until things improve.

When you are realistically figuring out your budget, remember that cars do not drive on air. You will need to put gas in them and it would be a good idea to set aside money every month for maintenance like tires, oil changes, etc.

Also, it’s important to retain a good sense of reality in regards to how much you’ll get when you trade in your car. You probably won’t get the blue book price. For instance, if your car is worth $6000 as a trade in, realize that this is only $6000 off the sticker price of the new car. If you receive a discount on the sticker price (rarely do people ever pay the sticker price!), you probably won’t get as much for your trade-in. Sometimes the amount that the dealer discounts your trade in turns out to be the same as if you’d paid the sticker price in the first place.

However, should you be able to work things out with your dealer and arrive at a fair price, you still need to shop for a new car loan. Even if you’re getting a good deal on your trade in vehicle, you’ll almost certainly need to borrow money to buy a new car. What kind of loan you get is almost as important as picking out the car.

If you happen to have a good credit rating, you can often get a good deal on your new car financing through the dealer. They’ll use the manufacturer’s lending resources to help find you the right financing. The best deal you can get is a zero percent finance rate. There’s no interest with a zero percent rate. You can also get one point nine or two point nine percent interest rates, which are a lot better than you can get through most other lenders. Therefore, if you can get a good deal through the dealer, you should probably go for it.

However, those with less than perfect credit may need to look at other options for their new car financing. You may be able to find attractive loan programs through other lenders. These programs are designed for people with a few credit problems. You can even get loans designed for people with very poor credit or even those who’ve filed bankruptcy. However, you should be careful with these kinds of loans. Slipping up with them can put you in line for lots of fees and penalties, and the interest rate is going to be higher because they will consider you a higher risk.

Remember, when you buy a new car, shopping for the right car loan is just as important as picking out the perfect car. If you go with the first financing you’re offered, you may find yourself paying several thousand dollars more than you would have if you had bothered to shop around. Don’t underestimate the value to you of getting the right financing. There’s an option available for you, no matter what your credit history looks like.

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Trademark Application: Online Tools to Protect Your Investment

Many businesses understand the benefits of trademarks for their products and services, in protecting them from the time and monetary investment in developing those products and services. However, many organisations and businesses are unaware of the need to register these trademarks to comprehensively protect their brand and business offerings.

Without the security of a registered trademark, a business risks losing the investment, or minimising the effect of, developmental and marketing efforts that it engages in. Competitors in the same or similar industries could potentially own a trademark with comparative qualities and identity in order to market products and services that replicate the business model. This could not only affect the revenue generating capability of the business by increasing the level of competition in the marketplace, but could lead to a damage of the image that has been created; resulting in a lower perception of quality by current and potential customers. Given the importance of securing your investment made in the marketplace, as well as securing the business future, legally registering the interest through the trademark application process is essential.

Applying for a trademark application, and upon finalisation, provides numerous benefits to the business, including that they are able to strongly differentiate their identity and products in the marketplace from their competitors. Furthermore, the trademark can act as a marketing instrument which empowers a company to control the image and perception presented to the market. An important commercial asset, applying for a trademark application can provide a level of quality to consumers, guaranteeing potential buyers of the quality of the products and services being sold.

The brand and logo of the company is the physical representation of the quality of the business. Successful logos and brands evoke instant feelings of trust, credibility and a desire by the consumers to purchase from the brand in question. This is why it is imperative that a trademark application be processed for the company’s design work, images, colour, fonts and other components that make up the logo and brand.

Since the inception of the internet, people have been turning to the web to source important information; and with the recent trends in websites providing online assistance and purchasing, a majority of consumers are turning to the internet to source information and purchase online. Trademark applications are no exception, with industry leading business protection companies developing software and wizards which guide the user through the trademark application process; alerting the user to important issues and prompting where other additional information may be required.

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Fancy A Dream Home Get A Home Improvement Loan

Guess where most people spend their time well it's their home. No wonder that people would like it to be perfect. So would most of the people as well. A perfect home depends on how an individual wants it to be. Perfection varies from individual to the other.

Most people love their home that's why it should be perfect in fact it should be reflection of perfection. If you love your home as well than it should be as you want it to be not as it is. If that is the case with you and you want your home to be your paradise but you can not afford it then a home improvement loan can help you in your quest.

A home improvement loan is basically a loan offered to people who want to make major or minor changes to their home. The changes can be major or minor. Examples of the changes are

o Adding or renovations of new rooms

o Central heating

o Landscaping

o Adding of luxuries like fireplaces or swimming pool

o Plumbing roofing or safety repairs

It could be a minor change or a major change which can completely turn around your home. A home improvement loan offers you an opportunity to make that improvement to turn your home into a dream home.

There are various ways by which an individual can go for a home improvement loan.

Secured home improvement loan in this loan the borrower provides a security to the borrower. The security could be any thing either a car or any other asset of the borrower.

Home equity is another type of secured home improvement loan where the security provided by the borrower can only be his home for which the loan has been taken.

Home improvement is basically an equity loan where the security is essential for the borrowing of the loan. However if the loan amount is under £ 10000 then an unsecured home improvement loan can be borrowed. An unsecured home improvement loan does not require the borrower to provide any kind of collateral to lender. These loans therefore carry a little higher rate of interest (about 1% – 2%) then the secured loans. This is the result of lender covering up for his risk factor. The usual interest rate is around 11.4% (variable)

Everyone in this world has home even people with bad credit history,
People like, CCJ's, defaults, arrears, late payments or people who have previously filled for bankruptcy. A credit score is given to all UK people who have previously taken loans. A score of below 600 is the one which causes the bad credit history. A home improvement loan is now available to these people as well.

Applying for loans is easy all the people who want to get the home improvement loan need to do is go online and fill in their requirements after they have found themselves a lender. If approved they will get the loan very quickly.

There are other benefits of home improvement as well which many people do not know about.

o If you go for home improvement it increases the value of the home which helps the owners when the owner wants to sell the house. It often helps in getting a better deal for the home as a furnished home would fetch a better price then an unfurnished one.

o For most people pride is the most important thing and a dream home would be the thing that provides that pride.

o For people with bad credit history it is an opportunity to improve their credit score if they follow the repayment plan as it should be

A home can be the best place to be once you come from your work if it is properly maintained. A poorly maintained house is no good to anyone so a home improvement is an absolute necessity. A home improvement loan is designed for people who are not financially capable of going for home improvement with several benefits by keeping the borrowers financial capabilities in mind.

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